The medical doctor who has been educated only for the diagnosis and treatment of surgical diseases of children, gained experience in this domain, and achieved the authority for the surgical intervention, is called the Pediatric Surgery Specialist. Pediatric Surgery is a discipline which deals with the diagnosis of the diseases requiring surgical intervention in children, and pre-operation, operation and post operation periods from the beginning from the postnatal days till reaching 15 years old. The human body that grows and develops incessantly in the process beginning from the neonatal period that extends to adolescence carries variable features which are suitable for every period. As there are diseases which are peculiar to different age groups and the nutrition requirement which is continually non-stable, a totally different way from the methods which are used to be seen in adults are followed in the diagnosis and treatment. For example; when an adult patient, who cannot be orally fed, is not transfused, this does not influence the course of the disease very much, but a half-hour of deferral may lead to a life threatening in the pediatric patient under the same conditions. The antibiotic doses used in the similar way, the anesthetic style given, the quality of surgical devices used together with the tenderness of the tissues of the pediatric patient are the evidences showing that the pediatric surgery is a branch in itself.
Many surgical interventions in children can also be done as laparoscopic.
Let us summarize the diseases in the domain of pediatric surgeons in the process which begins from the neonatal period extending to the adolescence as we have expressed in advance.
Things we have described as the congenital anomalies; the stuffiness of the esophagus- stomach- small intestine or colons, the position in which a part or the total of the heart-intestines or the bladder are out; adhesiveness, deficiencies or redundancies confronted in arms and legs, hands and fingers. It should be applied to the pediatric surgery center when the complaints such as difficulty in breathing, foam coming out of the mouth, throwing up, disability of defecation or defecation or urinary incontinence, bloody defecation emerge from the childbirth.
- The hernias which can be seen in the inguen, umbilicus and stomach of children from the delivery
- One or both of testes not descending to the bladder
- The water-filled cysts seen in scrotum or inguen
- The aching, rubescent tubercle in scrotum
- Urination lower or upper part of the penis
- Adhesiveness of foreskin
- The kidney and urinary diseases or stones that lead to the urinary infections relapsed
- The malformations in the thorax or back
- The curvature of the neck
- The aching or painless running tubercles in the neck relapsed from time to time, goiter
- The benign tumors called hemangioma commonly seen or in the form of the red spiloma in the head, neck, and nearly the whole body.
- The benign tumors and cancers of childhood that may emerge with a mass especially in the organs such as the liver, spleen, kidneys, suprarenal glands, stomach, intestines, and bladder.
- The whole intraabdominal inflammations congenitally or subsequently emerged particularly appendicitis that continue with the symptoms such as stomachache, high fever, nausea, and throwing up.
- The emergent or subsequent interventions in the situations of traffic accident on board or outboard, falling from height, striking, being shot etc.
It is possible to extend the list of these surgical diseases. The domain of the pediatric surgery is only children. It is a fact that some doctors had to deal with a part of the surgical diseases mentioned except for the pediatric surgeons once in the regions having no pediatric surgery. However, given the presence of the pediatric surgeons nowadays, it is truer to benefit from the fund of knowledge and experience of the doctors who have been educated in this domain in the treatment of the pediatric diseases which require the pediatric surgery.
How we apply to the pediatric doctors for the diagnosis and treatment when our children fall ill, we should naturally apply to the pediatric surgeons for the diagnosis and treatment of the surgical diseases.